The characteristics of migration, the Bamileke nont stopped dêtre accompanied in their
travels to the interior of the country a reputation denvahisseurs and cest without seton in the electoral context, the problem of Management of Commons by elected mayors, would raise the issue of indigenous mayors.
Sinscrit in this sense the suspicion dun native Beti, shortly before the January 21 municipal consultations about the management of Commons: The municipality should be administered by local people. It is feared that the Ewondo and Douala are excluded from the Bamileke urban municipalities as likely to win all the seats with their party, the SDF, which was on a roll (....); conflicts fuse also on all sides between the native and Bamileke about the land dispute (....); need a law that guarantees customary ownership. LÉtat's interest to establish populations on their sacred land that must be jealously preserved (...). It is common to find that son or Ewondos Douala returning dun long stay in foreign country the land claim found in the hands of monopolists Bamileke. Its a social phenomenon carries seeds of bloody battles (...) regulation of social relations should encourage the government to reflect on the land tenure system in force in our country so that every Cameroonian keeps the land of his ancestors . (16) This opinion foreshadowed the controversy that was to take shape into the constitution about the rights of indigenous peoples.
While so far the concepts of autochthony and by extension that of allogeneic did not come out of the context of simple popular culture, the new constitution of January 18, 1996 sest indeed characterized by a truly original innovation consisting in their constitutionalisation: LÉtat protects minorities and preserve the rights of indigenous peoples. This new provision sest proved almost out of phase with the Preamble of the ancient constitution, which states: The Cameroonian people, proud of its linguistic and cultural diversity, deeply conscious of the urgent need to improve its unity, solemnly proclaims a single nation, engaged in the same destiny and affirms its firm determination to build the Cameroonian Fatherland on the basis of lidéal of brotherhood, justice and progress (...). Every man has a right to settle anywhere and move freely (...). No one shall be disquieted on account of its origins.
In view of this paradox in the texts, we understand that many will have received a hostile disposition to a certain demographic majority Bamileke else and for ethnic minorities. As one might expect sy, the entrenchment of a lautochtonie, thanks to the municipal consultation of 21 January 1996, resulted in many claims daffirmative action. Particularly in Douala where lantagonisme Bamileke-Sawa has mushroomed and has come to a storefront. Certainly, the Bamileke are considered the majority ethnic group in Douala, a real compendium ethnic, a city of great ethnic promiscuity where Bamileke have 70% of the population, according to Georges Courade. (17) However, the passage of the electoral automatic demographic majority in the political majority does not sest smoothly.
On completion of the elections, native Bamileke, strongly represented in the SDF (Social Democratic Front) party of radical lopposition also a strong presence in Douala, were elected mayors of the four municipalities that account 5 Douala, against Mayor Sawa a native. Cest to protest against an under-representation of Aboriginal in this quil called their local leaders that Sawa program several protest marches in the streets of Douala, against lhégémonie Bamileke, requiring on behalf of the rights of minorities and indigenous natives that are fairly represented at the head of Commons.