Through the four corners of the world, Nelson Mandela serves mythical hero who fought against the racism of apartheid to the end of his strength, a fight that led him to spend nearly 28 years behind bars for finally triumph being released, actively participating in the end of apartheid and to eventually become President of the country where he was imprisoned.
It has the image of a brave man, good, steadfast, praised by all the elites (in particular Western) all current social democrats and republicans who base their policy on the ultra-liberal global capitalism and speculative and ... precisely what is from there that should rise to doubt. Why a man who fought for the good of his people turned up highlighted by the very people who seek world domination and enrichment robbing the surplus value extracted wealth inherent in the common goods of the same people? Why this unanimity? Something wrong with this colorful character whose story is surrounded by a veil of mystery. And we will try to see more clearly in this test.
- The beginnings of Mandela and his history in the resistance of the ANC.
Nelson Mandela was born 18 July 1918 in Transkei, South Africa in the royal house of Thembus. He graduated in law in 1942 and it was at this time he joined the ANC (African National Congress - African National Congress, a political party founded in 1912 to defend the interests of the black majority against the minority white, a fight to overthrow the social order.'s party will establish links with the Communist Party of South Africa from 1930). In 1944 Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu and Oliver Tambo founded the Youth League of the ANC, more radical than its predecessor in its mode of expression, partisan mass demonstrations to give the white political power. Then came 1948, the year horrible. To everyone's surprise, the National Party won the elections white on the fear of "Swart Gevaar" (the "black peril") and his program: "Die Kaffer op sy plek" ("The negro in his place"). The Prime Minister, a former pastor of the Dutch Reformed Church, Dr Daniel Malan, built immediately, brick by brick, statute by statute, the wall of "grand apartheid" (as opposed to the "petty apartheid" that had prevailed until one). Apartheid is an Afrikaans word (after the Dutch language) which means separation. It is a system of segregation of people of color (black, colored and Indian) applied in South Africa until 1994.
This is the name of this regime that is directed from 1948 to 1992 the racial order in the South African state. Whole life was strictly codified set of laws for each community extremely accurate, up from benches assigned to this racial group. Every citizen must hold an identity card stating his race. This policy is also based on an anticommunist struggle (the Communist Party was banned in 1950, Communist Party members had joined the ANC) to legitimize ideologically to the world.
This is the fight of the ANC intensified, and in 1949 the young wolves "the youth league of the ANC took power at the head of the ANC. Gradually the movement is growing in population and in 1952, the campaign challenge (non-compliance with the laws of apartheid) that lasts several months, meeting a huge success. So much so that on 30 July 1952, Mandela was arrested by the police. He was sentenced, along with other comrades to nine months' hard labor, but the sentence is suspended for two years. Nelson Mandela becomes dangerous for power. At the same time, the core leader of the ANC is already preparing for the possibility of a prohibition, therefore clandestine work, but not the armed struggle while Mandela begins to think against a white power which becomes increasingly violent. Power white thinking shaving Sophiatown, the township on the outskirts of rebel Jo'burg. Faced with this threat Mandela assert that the time for passive resistance is finished, nonviolence is a strategy vain, she never overthrow a minority. And he was not wrong because Sophiatown be wiped February 9, 1955, despite the resistance of the population, but its inhabitants take with them their revolt in their new city, named after its geographic location: South West Townships: Soweto.
And it is in this climate that the 25 and 26 June 1955 in Kliptown, the ANC adopted the Freedom Charter, real long-term political manifesto. For the first time, the organization not only to criticize the apartheid laws, but suggests the advent of a democratic South Africa and non-racial. Another question. Other staff. Another reaction of power. This is too much for the powers that be who demonstrated a repression harder and harder.
Thus December 5, 1955 in Soweto Mandela and 91 other ANC members were accused of high treason, they incur the death penalty! Trial (called "The Trial of treason") will therefore begin this year and end on 29 March 1961, 5 years in a major event which will change the face of South Africa internally and externally.
On 21 March 1960, the Sharpeville massacre. In this small township 50 kilometers south of Johannesburg, police opened fire against demonstrators. Balance seventy-nine dead. International community condemns and some countries adopt sanctions. In this same year 1960, the ANC and black organizations were banned after the Sharpeville massacre.
Meanwhile "The trial of treason" turns demonstration on the part of defendants. The court Pretoria becomes a sort of permanent forum for the ANC. The defense lawyers run more than once prosecutors ridiculous. In the international press echoed. Prefer to stop power costs. March 29, 1961, Judge Rumpff concludes: "The accused are found not guilty and acquitted. ".
Nelson Mandela leaves open court but immediately enters the underground.
In June 1961, the ANC held a clandestine meeting, one of the largest in its history. On a proposal from Mandela, and after hours of heated debate, the anti-apartheid movement decided to launch an armed struggle by creating a military organization. Name: Umkhonto we Sizwe (the spear of the nation). Its leader Nelson Mandela. His seat Liliesleaf Farm, Rivonia, "a bucolic suburb north of Johannesburg." This is where Mandela reads On War by von Clausewitz, the Revolt Menachem Begin. It documents the guerrilla armies of Kenya, Algeria and Cameroon before going on site during 1962. It develops explosives and begins to lead the first military operations.
On 5 August 1963 Mandela was arrested after the denunciation of neighbors. He was forty-four years. During his trial, Mandela, in a courtroom frozen and silent, made a ringing declaration:
"Throughout my life, I am dedicated to the struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination and I have fought against black domination. My ideal was the most expensive one of a free and democratic society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. I hope to live long enough to reach it. But if necessary, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die. '
He was sentenced to life in prison, he spent almost 28 years. The ANC is completely dismantled.
- The years prison, the mysterious negotiations and liberation.
During his 28 years in prison, he will endeavor to continue the struggle ideologically through political discussions with his fellow prisoners, and especially maintaining contact with the outside, with the help of a common prisoner nicknamed Joe my Baby, which enter and exit fraud messages prison. Meanwhile, outside the South African government, based on the fight against the communist threat, enjoyed the indifference of the international community's support to see some (U.S. and Israel among others). From 1959, the South African government in its policy benefit to accentuate the Bantustans to move black people (who lived mostly in the township), by ethnicity penning the territories named in Bantustans. Territory which shall see greater autonomy quasi-independence, this was a way to reduce some of the rights enjoyed even blacks in South Africa. And from 1970, to decide to withdraw the South African citizenship to all those who lived in the Bantustans. Their goal was now clear, it should no longer remain a black South Africa.
Then came the uprising in the township of Soweto in 1976. The Soweto riots were a manifestation of black adolescents in South Africa June 16, 1976, protesting against the imposition of Afrikaans language teaching exclusive and escalated when police opened fire. The record is officially 23 dead and 220 wounded, but the actual record is not really known. We're talking hundreds of deaths, and it is sometimes 575 dead, including 570 blacks. The last members of the ANC who were exiled abroad to send profits while many activists maintain protest against the white regime and new recruits join Umkhonto we Sizwe. From 1977, the sabotage of the ANC found itself growing and some of them are murderers. From this date the riots propagated in all townships in the country and their impact on international opinion was such that in 1977 forced the UN to declare an embargo on arms sales to Africa South. Government repression intensifies as resulting in multiple arrests.
In the 80s, the fire will continue to expand, as well as international disputes involving the boycott of South Africa (as is currently the BDS movement against Israel). Moreover, with the collapse of more certain of the Soviet regime, the South African government could not continue forever to be used to legitimize the Communist bogey its racist policy. The rise of new world order on how liberal democracy put the South African leaders face a choice of survival ... the apartheid government is desperate, isolated on the international stage, he struggles to suppress anti-regime rallies in the townships, the story is moving and must find a way to get out of "free". Then, in 1982 Nelson Mandela was transferred to Pollsmoor Prison and has a "preferential treatment." Strategy becomes clear to January 31, 1985. That day, P. W. Botha, the Prime Minister proposes to release the oldest political prisoner in the world if he rejects "unconditionally political violence." Mandela refuse and then begin negotiations, negotiations will be kept secret and even today we do not really know what it was negotiated (as stated by Gbagbo) except for a few details like the fact that Mandela refused the idea of a veto power for the white minority institutions in the future. Between 1988 and 1989, negotiations accelerate, Frederik de Klerk replaces Botha in August 1989 the head of the South African state. The Berlin Wall fell, the apartheid government can no longer claim to oppose the ANC to stop communist expansion, South Africa is on the wrong side of history, we must act quickly.
It was then that on 2 February 1990, de Klerk announced the release of Mandela and the end of the banning of the ANC. February 11, Mandela crossed on foot the last meters of his "long walk to freedom."
- End of apartheid, President and glory.
Constitutional negotiations on the future of South Africa start from the ANC government, the National Party and other black movements or preservatives. Nelson Mandela Tambo succeeded to the direction of the ANC in 1991. He leads the open negotiations with the National Party of FW de Klerk and negotiates the release of apartheid. Apartheid was abolished in June 1991, a fully validated abolition in March 1992 by "whites" with all the constitutional reforms negotiated.
In December 1993, FW de Klerk and Nelson Mandela are both award the Nobel Peace Prize.
On 27 April 1994, the first multiracial elections in the country's history gives a clear victory for the ANC (65%). The party president, Nelson Mandela was elected president by the new parliament, while seven of the nine provinces were won by the ANC. He was President until 1999, he will not stand for re-election.
- So why the title: "The betrayal of a hero"?
In view of his biography, everything leads to believe that the title of hero is deserved and I do not deny, Mandela was a great man who fought for a noble cause but just see what the finding of the South Africa today to understand his betrayal.
The conclusion today is that after sixteen years of democracy, South Africa is the world champion of inequality: the black population, which represents 80% of the population control only 5% of wealth. Only a tiny fraction (3%) of arable land owned by white farmers (87%) were transferred to blacks since 1994. We are far from the promises of equality.
The conclusion is clear, the economic order was never questioned and challenged the racial order has allowed only a small minority of black gentrification and join the big bourgeoisie whites in the defense of their social interests.
Mandela became the hero of capitalist elites around the world (there is a consensus imposed by the ideology of the media in their hands) because he did not touch the bag, he left South Africa to continue in a headlong rush to global capitalism the most violent possible for poor people ...
He never gave details of the negotiations preceding its release, it's probably because it has agreed to sell (by consent or knowledge of the subject) his fight, its legitimacy and its people to the worst capitalist sharks and financial return for the end of racial. You can not erase decades of social inequalities based on racial differences in a model of capitalist society ... is absolute nonsense knowing that capitalism creates more inequality. Would have had to impose a socialist society and just where it is the people who enjoy the wealth derived from the value added for the benefit of all South Africans to the image of Venezuela's Hugo Chavez (who is demonized in the West as it affects ... where it hurts).
Let's be clear in purpose Mandela is not Lumumba Sankara were killed for their political support of the people who elected despite the interests of capitalist and imperialist sharks. South Africa Mandela became the blacks who shoot other blacks, blacks who live in misery even greater than under apartheid (to the point of regretting the time) and white farmers murdered.
The end of apartheid is a scam for the people of South Africa.